Activities and details on participation of New Zealand

English 2013.07.01 10:53

1. Details on participation in the Korean War

 

New Zealand dispatched two Frigits (Pukaki, Tutira), which were later under the Far East Navy on July 30, as UNSC agreed upon military assistance for Korea. New Zealand decided to dispatch its artillery troops at the end of July as UN Secretary General requested additional ground forces to be sent on July 14th.

Dispatched 16th artillery regiment, in fact, had its strength of a battalion, and 24 25-pound-ordinances it had was similar to US 105mm howitzer. 16th artillery regiment came to participate in the Korean War with warm welcome from citizens, ROKA and US Army after 21 days of sailing from New Zealand (Dec. 10) to Busan, Korea (Dec. 31).

 

 

2. Activities of the Ground Force

 

16th artillery regiment, transferred to Janghowon on Jan. 20. 1951 and was assigned to 27th brigade of the Commonwealth, participated in counterattack operation on Feb. 21. However, 16th artillery regiment had difficulties in transporting ammunition and equipment due to not only narrow roads but also tough topography.

As Chinese army started its attack on April 22, the regiment supporting ROK 6th division safely withdrew and developed at the northeast of Gapyeong by the evening on April 23 even though roads near Sachangri was chaotic by infantries, ordinances, and various TVs due to chase by Chinese troops. The regiment gave tremendous personnel injuries to Community Chinese troops firing 10,000 25-pound-ammo for 3 days as Communist army tried to march toward Gapyeong starting that night.

After 1st Division of the Commonwealth was initiated on July 28, the regiment, which moved to Imjin river and was assigned under the 1st division, came to support 28th brigade of the Commonwealth in first-hand. The regiment also made its record of the largest shell consumption during the war as it fired 72,000 ammo for 6 days in order to support the 28th brigade's attack on Mt. Maryang and 217 highland of Mt. Gowang on Oct. 3. Moreover, on Nov. 4, Chinese troops heavily fired against the 28th brigade in order to retake Mt. Maryang and 217 highland. Then, the regiment supported the 28th brigade in terms of firepower till Mt. Maryang and 217 highland area were covered in gun smoke and fire.

The 16th artillery regiment fired leaflet projective bombs, which contain leaflets, cartoons, and etc., several times as a means of supporting psychological warfare on Feb. 1952 when was in a lull in the fighting. Also, on Oct. 23, the regiment fired 500,000th 25-pound-shell in the process of supporting Canada 25th brigade attack on Mt. Gowang. Furthermore, it supported ROK 1st division to take counterattack on Nori and Baeti highland by firing 3,400 ammo on Dec. 11.

At the end of Jan. 1953, it was given order to support 2nd Division, 9th corp after it was under control of US 2nd Division. Communist Chinese army took a surprise attack, and hence there was a fierce fight for 10 hours over Mt. Gowang. At the time, the regiment contributed on 9th regiment defending Mt. Gowang using 4,600 ammo over the area. The regiment supported Britain 29th brigade attack at Hooke highland-located on the West of Samicheon-for a whole month of May. Furthermore, it also supported ROK 1st division in terms of firepower on June 25. Consequently, this battle was recorded as the last battle of 16th artillery regiment in the Korean War.

 

3. Activities of the Navy

 

Two Frigits (Pukaki, Tutira) under command of the Far East Navy operated its mission-to protect transporting ships to Busan every evening and then return to Sasebo next morning-from Aug. 1. 1950 to early Sept. Also, during Operation Chromite, they were assigned to 7th mobility fleet and protected large warships, which were put into the operation.

On the early March of 1951, two Frigits accomplished sea-clearing opertaion by joint operation with two ROK mine sweepers despite of unfavorable conditions for 3 weeks near Baekryong Island such as steep tide difference, dramatic weather, and etc. The Frigits found out 1 enemy coast battery camp while they were patrolling on May. 18. Then, they completely destroyed the camp firing 29 4-inch shells for the first time in the Korean War. 7 crews on Rotoiti fleet also participated in the operation as Britain marine corps took a surprise attack against Seogokri shore batteries on Aug. 25.

Taupo warship was dispatched to the East Sea in the middle of Feb. 1952. As 15 enemy sailboats attacked Yang Island, the East Sea, on 19th, Taupo fired against them and took down 10. However, while it was chasing escaping enemies, Taupo engine room was partially damaged due to converging enemy fire, so that it pulled back with protection given by US battleships.

On April 25, the enemy heavily attacked US mine sweepers with their mortars and artillery barrages. Then, Kaniere battleship, activating in the West Sea in 1953, immediately fired back at enemy shore battery camps and completely took their control. Such achievement shows the finest marksmanship of New Zealand Navy. As the armistice agreement was signed, Kaniere and Habe fleets protected withdrawal of retreating UN commando units as well as put more weight on patrolling around 38 line.

 

New Zealand suffered 23 warriors dead and 79 soldiers injured during the Korean War. It withdrew its Navy on March 1954 as for the Ground Force on November 1955 after the armistice agreement was signed.

 

Posted by LG Innotek

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The Republic of South Africa's Key Actions During the Entry Into the Korean War

English 2013.07.01 10:51

On 5th of November, they have arrived in Yokohama, Japan and took over F-51's (Mustang) from the U.S. Air Force, then deployed at Sooyeong Airfield in Busan on 16th November.

 

On the morning of November 19th, they organized a flight formation with 4 Mustangs to make a sortie towards the north of Cheongcheon river where they have attacked North Korean Army's rendezvous area and field supply point, then have moved to Pyeongyang Airfield in order to effectively support UN Forces' final offensive on 22nd of November.

 

Due to the partial damage done to Pyeongyang Airfield, it was dangerous for an aeroplane to take off and land at the time. With his visions compromised with a thick dust formed during the landing, one of the Mustang's pilot had crashed into a prime mover, costing two fighter planes in the course on 26th of November. Nevertheless, they have made a sortie to support UN Forces' final offensive with close-range air-support and bombed the enemy's supply vehicles and formations moving towards the south along the road from Shin-euiju to Shin-anju.

 

When UN Forces withdrew on December 5th, they took off towards Anju, in order to drop bombs on a number of covered vehicles with explosives that should have been evacuated and during this bombing process one of the Mustangs had crahsed due to the fragment from the explosive. However, the pilot had rescued by the U.S. Airforce's helicopter patrolling above the nearby skies. Furthermore, they made a huge military record of making 20 sorties to demolish 57 buildings, 15 trucks, 1 railroad facility in Sooan and Sariwon area.

 

Towards the end of January in 1951, the demand for close air-support from the ground troops have been increased as the re-counter offensive operation was being initiated, hence the squadron's number of sorties have suddenly increased as well, counting to almost 1,000 times within the period of just 2 months from February 12th. Especially, on March 1st, 36 sorties have been made in a day, to set a record for the most number of sorties made within the subordinate units of the 18th Flight Bomber Wing.

 

However, at 15:30 on 23rd of July, there also had been a sorrow of losing a one whole formation of fighters which have gone missing because of a sudden change in an atmospheric condition near the skies of Sibyeon-ri. The formation was returning from its weather reconnaissance mission above the Yellow Sea of Korea, back to Yeoeui-do Airbase. On September 22nd, they had moved from Jinhae Base to Hoengseong Base of the central line to support the ground troops stationed at the frontline.

 

When UN Air Force had planned the Operation Saturate on February 25th in 1951, the battalion made a sortie to the north of Cheongcheon and bombed railroads and bridges. Above all, since their entry into the war on March 20th, they have battled in the North Korean sky for the second time with a MIG jet fighter, shooting down one of them with the cost of one Mustang.

 

Towards the end of December, the spare parts of Mustang were running short. To change the aeroplane types to the jet-powered fighters, they assembled all of the Mustangs and handed them back at the Jinhae Airbase with December 27th being their last sortie. On January 2nd in 1953, they have moved from Hoengseong Airfield to Osan Base for pilot training regarding F-86. By mid-March, the battalion was able to execute campaigns using F-86's. Armed with F-86's, on March 11th, they advanced towards the south of Aprok river and initiated combat air patrol and participated in the Pyeongyang Heavy Bombing Operation on May 1st. Also, they demolished 6 old-fashioned fighters at Shin-euiju Airfield as they had participated in operations to annihilate airfields in North Korea. Despite the imminent cease-fire, they have made a outstanding record of 41 sorties in a day to surveil enemy's air force activity.

 

The Republic of South Africa participated in the Korean War with 826 men leaving 34 personnel loss. After the cease-fire, on September 7th in 1953, they returned the fighters back to U.S. Air Force and withdrew on October 29th.

 

Posted by LG Innotek

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Thailand's Main Activity during the Korean War

English 2013.07.01 08:50

1. Activity of the Ground Force

 

The troops moved to Pyeongyang in December 5th of 1950, and covered the withdrawal of UN Forces in the Gaeseong area. They then moved to Suwon on December 13th as the reserve of the 8th Army. As the CCA attacked on New Years, they marched towards Sindoon-ri, which is located North of Seoul, and were attached under the 29th Brigade. When a company size CCA infiltrated the Brigade Command Post on January 3rd, they fought against the CCA for the first time and defeated the enemies with the help of Brigade Main Force. Shortly after, they crossed the Han River and withdrew back to Suwon.

 

The Battalion was later attached to U.S. 1st Cavalry Division and conducted a Counter Offensive Operation on March 7th and marched towards the Hwacheon Reservoir on April 3rd. They took 22 CCA hostages and rescued 4 U.S. POWs, but also suffered a loss of one dead and eleven injured.

 

As the CCA launched the Spring Offense and marched towards Seoul, the Thailand Ground Troops frantically fought against the enemies in the Changdong area. As a result of the night-long battle, the Battalion was able to kill 32 CCA soldiers and march towards Yooldong-ri area in July 31st in the process of chasing the enemy. Meanwhile, the 2nd Company laid a surprise attack against the enemy assembly area near 346th Highland, located south of Yeokgok-cheon. In the end, they killed 70 enemy soldiers and destroyed massive amounts of supplies.

 

Afterwards, the Battalion formed a defensive position South of the T-bone Highland, which is located West of Cheorwon. On November 13th, two company-size CCA troops attacked the GOP Platoon with their tank forces, but the platoon conducted a hand-to-hand combat to defeat the enemies and kill 30 enemy soldiers. At the same time, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division returned from Japan, and thus the Battalion got attached to U.S. 2nd Division 9th Regiment on December 15th.

 

During the First half of 1952, they continuously reconnoitered and ambushed the Galhwa-dong and Western Tapgol area but did not engage in major combat. On October 22nd, they reorganized the troop and was positioned along the main line if resistance in Homak-ri. Near midnight of October 27th, the platoon-size troop conducted a surprise attack on Bokgae Highland located near the main line of resistance. 20 CCA soldiers were killed and three were taken hostage. In order to recover the loss, CCA launched a two company-size attack on 21:00 of November 1st after launching a converging fire in the Porkchop Highland. This was the fiercest battle the Ground Troops had experienced since their participation. More than 50 enemy soldiers were killed, and the Battalion also suffered 8 deaths and 14 injuries. Acknowledging the Thailand soldiers' intrepidity, the 8th Army named them "The Little Tigers."

 

Right before the Armistice Negotiation, the CCA intended to capture the Sadong area located North of Gimhwa. Thus on July 17th 1953, they laid a concentrated fire on the Battalion area after shortly after sunset and marched across the Hantan River at 22:00 with two company-size troop. Yet, they suffered another defeat against the Thailand Ground Troops.

 

2. Activity of the Naval Force

 

The Frigates Prasae and Bangpakong attached to the Far East Naval Forces and the transport Sichang were committed to the operation of covering the waterway of U.S. Naval Base Sasebo until late December of 1950.

 

Frigates Prasae and Bangpakong were dispatched to the East Sea on January 3rd of 1951. Yet, the tempest drove the Prasae on the rocks in the Sokcho area 16 kilometers North of the 38th Parallel Line on January 17th. In the process of trying to save the broken ship, two soldiers were killed and 23 were injured. The Commander of the 95th Maneuvering Fleet considered repairing the Prasae as worthless, and thus sank the frigate on 18:00 using naval gunfire.

 

As the transport Sichang returned home on July 15th upon the request of the Thailand Government, frigate Bangpakong was the only Thailand fleet remaining. Thus, U.S. supplied two frigates on October 29th and named them HMTS(Her Majesty's Tuvaluan Ship) Prasae II and HMTS Tachin respectively. The frigates concentrated on naval training until December 20th. Afterwards, no special occasions troubled the Thailand Naval Troops. Thus, they devotedly aided the UN Naval Operations by repeating the maintenance and supply of fleets and transports covering operations until July 27th of 1953, when the Armistice Agreement was signed.

 

3. Activity of the Air Force

 

On June 13th of 1951, Thailand entered the war after three of their C-47 transport planes were attached to U.S. 135th Air Division, 374th Troop Transport Wing, and 21st Squadron respectively. The C-47 transport planes U.S. possessed at the time weren't equipped with sickbed or medical equipments. Also, the C-54 transport planes were hard to utilize on Korean Airfields which had short landing strips. Yet, Thailand's transport planes were small and equipped with medical supplies, which made them possible to carry out the emergency transport mission. The transport plane battalion mainly evacuated the patients from ROK to Japan.

 

The U.S. Far East Air Force replaced the former C-54 transport planes to C-124 in order to enhance the transporting capability. Yet, there were only four strips in South Korea where a C-124 could land and take off. Thus, the activity of Thailand's transport planes was actually increased.

 

Starting from February of 1953, the Greek Transport Battalion stationed in Gimpo Airfield took charge of the transport missions within the peninsula. Thus, the Thailand Air Force transported troops and supplies within Air Force Bases in Japan until the Armistice Agreement was signed.

 

Thailand dispatched a total of 3,650 soldiers in the Korean war and suffered 129 dead and 1,139 injured. After the Armistice Agreement, the Ground Force withdrew in 1954 with only one company remaining. The Naval Force withdrew in January of 1955 and the Air Force on November of 1964. The final remaining troops withdrew on June of 1972.

 

Posted by LG Innotek

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